Wednesday, November 28, 2007

Patron: Sacred Heart ofJesus Second Patron: St. Pius X

The Eparchy of Kottayam was erected exclusively for the Southist (Knanaya) Catholics in 1911. The Knanaya Community traces its origin from a group of Jewish-Christian emigrants from Southern Mesopotamia to the South Indian port of Cranganore in AD 345, who formed themselves into an endogamous community. They co-existed peacefully in the Indian nation and fulfilled their missionary purpose of re-invigorating the Church of St Thomas Christians. The original community consisted of about 400 persons belonging to 72 families of seven septs headed by Thomas of Kynai. A bishop by name Uraha Mar Yousef, four priests and several deacons were among them.
As the Catholicos of the East had promised the emigrants that he would send from time to time bishops to India, Uraha Mar Yousef had successors till the end of the 16th century. Under the East Syrian Bishops, the Knanaya Community had their own churches and priests distinct from those of the non-Knanaya St Thomas Christians. This system continued also under the Latin Rite European bishops, who governed the St Thomas Christians. When a ritual separation was effected for the Catholics in Kerala between the Orientals and Latins in 1887, all the Knanaya Catholics de facto were in the Apostolic Vicariate of Kottayam, and the Holy See ordered Bishop Charles Lavigne to appoint a separate Vicar General for the Knanaya Community. When the Vicariates Apostolic were re-organized into Trichur, Ernakulam and Changanassery and three indigenous bishops were appointed for the Syro-Malabarians in 1896 the bishop appointed for the Vicariate of Changanassery was Mar Mathew Makil, the former Vicar General for the Knanaya Community.
On August 29, 1911 a new Vicariate Apostolic of Kottayam was erected exclusively for the Knanaya Community by the Apostolic letter “In Universi Christiani” of His Holiness Pope St Pius X. On December 21, 1923 the Vicariate Apostolic of Kottayam was raised to an Eparchy by Pope Pius XI. When the territorial limits of the Syro-Malabar Church was extended in 1955, the jurisdiction of the Eparchy of Kottayam also was made co-extensive with the then extended territory of the Syro-Malabar Church.
On December 23, 2003 His Holiness Pope John Paul II made a sovereign decision that the status quo (pro gente suddistica) of the Eparchy of Kottayam must be maintained and left it to the Bishops’ Synod of the Syro-Malabar church to decide on the desired enhancement of the juridical status of the Eparchy of Kottayam. In November 2004 the synod gave its consent to elevate the Eparchy of Kottayam to the rank of a metropolitan see without a suffrogan eparchy. On March 21, 2005 the congregation for the oriental churches issued a letter of no-objection to the decision of the Bishop’s synod. Accordingly, on may 9, 2005 the Major Archbishop Mar Varkey Cardinal Vithayathil issued the decree “The Eparchy of Kottayam” elevating the Eparchy of Kottayam to the rank of a metropolitan see, and another decree “God our loving father”, appointing Mar Kuriakose Kunnacherry as the first metropolitan of the newly erected metropolitan see of Kottayam. On June 3, 2005, the feast of the Most Sacred Heart of Jesus, at a liturgical service the Major Archbishop canonically erected the metropolitan see of Kottayam and ordained and enthroned Mar Kuriakose Kunnacherry as the first Metropolitan of Kottayam.
In the year 345 A.D., one Knai Thomman, a rich international merchant, and 72 families from Cana (Middle East), belonging to East Syrian Church (Chaldean), immigrated to Malabar (presently Kerala) and established their colony. In the group there were also priests, deacons and their bishop. Knai Thomman and his people were welcomed by Cheraman Perumal, the Emperor, and were given permission to settle down in Kodungalloor. They built a town in Kodungalloor with a church and 72 houses. The natives called it Mahadevar Pattanam meaning "town of superiors". Later, Cheraman Perumal bestowed them with many princely privileges, and it was recorded on copper plates (Knai Thomman Cheppedu) given to Knai Thomman.
Knanaya Christians are the descendants of these Jewish Christian immigrants in Kerala. They were also called Southists (Thekkumbhagar) because they lived on the south side of Kodungalloor. The St. Thomas Christians (native Christians of Kerala) who lived on the north side of Kodungalloor were known as Northists (Vadakkumbhagar). Another tradition is that Knananites settled down on the south side of Periyar river while the native Christians lived on the north side of the river. It is also stated that Knananites were called Southists because they came from the southern kingdom of Judah.
Knanaya Christians are seen not only among the Catholics but also among the Orthodox Christians of Kerala, because when a group of Thomas Christians joined Jacobitism, among them there were Knanaya Christians too. They observe many rituals and traditions which are very peculiar to their own community. Even today, the Knananites continue to be an endogamous community. In order to keep the purity of their race and ethnicity, they do not
marry any one outside their community. They also keep away from evangelizing and converting others to Christianity. If anybody is converted to Christianity, such a person won't be accepted in the community. Though this sense of "purity" is a distorted one, and is against basic Christian mission, it is acknowledged by Rome by establishing a separate diocese (Kottayam) for the Knanaya Catholics. A Knanaya Catholic can marry a Knanaya Jacobite, but cannot marry another Catholic even one who belongs to the same rite! It seems, Knananites are more proud of being Jewish than being "Christian.

Knanaya Catholic Community


Kerala is one of the twenty five states of India, situated at the southern most part of the peninsula. The Christian population of Kerala is 22% as against 2.5% of the Indian average. Among the innumerable Christian sects in Kerala, Catholics form the majority. There are three rites among the Kerala Catholics, namely the Roman rite, and the Oriental rites of Syro-Malabar and Syro-Malankara. The oriental rites are commonly called "St. Thomas Christians" as they are the descendants of those converted by St. Thomas, the Apostle when he preached in India from 52 AD. The followers of the Syro-Malabar rite form the majority of Catholics. The Syro-Malabar church of Kerala is very active, vibrant and growing, faithful to the doctrines of the universal church, very rich in vocations and very traditional in family values. Syro-Malabar church is growing to outside Kerala and India. There are 21 eparchies for this church, 12 in Kerala and 9 outside Kerala. The Syro-Malabar church was raised to an Archiepiscopal church in January 1993. It is the preparation to make it a patriarchal church in future.
In the Syro-Malabar church there is a small group called "Southists" in the church documents and "Knanaya Catholics". It is an ethnic group, and endogamous community which has its own distinct traditions, customs and culture. They are spread through out the world. This 200,000+ strong community is under the Bishop of Kottayam, who enjoys personal jurisdiction over all Knanaya Catholics. When interaction between nations and people grew stronger and development in science and technology helped it, and the goodness of the human heart boosted the idea that the world is one human family with diverse cultures, beliefs, and other traits, Knanaya Catholics found their way abroad to many countries. The United States of America is the most country of their emigration. As people who long preserved their unique traditions and customs, even now they are keen on preserving them for the next generation.

Origin and Growth of the Knanaya Community

The Knanaya people trace their origin back to the 72 Mesopotamian Christian families who immigrated to India and settled in Kerala in AD 345. Mesopotamia was part of the Babylonian empire. The immigrants were part of Jewish Christian community which took special care to preserve some of its Jewish-cultural traits. They were under the jurisdiction of the Catholicos of the East in Seleucia-Ctesiphon. This church also trace it's origin to the apostle St. Thomas in that it was established by the preaching of his disciple Mar Mari. The Catholicos of Seleucia-Ctesiphon came to know the sad plight of the Indian church through traders who had been trading with India. As directed by the Catholicos, a merchant called Thomas Kinayi (Kinan) organized an immigration of 72 families from seven tribes of Jewish Christians. They were accompanied by Bishop Mar Joseph of Uraha, (also called Uruck and it is the present Warka in Iraq) and four priests and a few deacons. On reaching the Kerala cost (at that time called Malabar Coast) Thomas Kinayi visited the ruling King Cheraman Perumal and obtained from him land and some highly esteemed privileges. (The deed can be found here). This community began to be called "Knananites" or "Southists" after their prominent leader Thomas Kinayi. The influx these immigrants with a Bishop and Clergy invigorated the existing Indian church, enabling it to prosper in India as a privileged community.
The Knanaya community remained as an endogamous community following Judeo-Christian traditions. In the course of centuries these traditions have been kept up from generation to generation. These traditions and privileges were recorded in the form of folk songs which were used with or without a dance form called "Margam Kali" (Dance of the way of Jesus) on religious and festive occasions. These folk songs, dance, endogamy, various customs at marriage, funeral, Passover and various occasions and a number of other things constitute the unique Knanaya culture. Though many of them are not connected with liturgical functions, all of them are religious in overtone. The first immigrants were Judeo-Christians who kept up many Jewish Traditions. Before embarking on ships at Uz the immigrants under the leadership of Thomas Kinayi visited the Catholicos to get his blessing and went to the tomb of Ezra of the Old Testament and prayed to get his blessing. Ezra was a champion of pure lineage and endogamy among Jews. This explains the strict practice of endogamy among the Knananites. When the Christian community of Uz gathered to see the immigrants off, while kissing and embracing each other painful of parting, enjoined them of strict adherence to ten commandments, seven sacraments, endogamy, harmony and devote life.
Through out the history of 16 turbulent centuries the Knananites tried to be faithful to their original spirit. Their presence, the privileges they had, the clergy they maintained, all help the shape up and flourishing of the original Christianity in India which was at the crossroads. As endogamous community its numerical growth was limited and remained as minority. The community began to face problems from the onslaught of others. Community surmounted all these situations. The Holy See at the beginning of this century, took note of the affliction of this community and their challenges and issued a Papel Decree to establish a diocese solely for them. That is the Kottayam diocese.

Further reading

For further reading please refer to the book The Babylonian origin of the Southists among the St.Thomas Christians; by Rev. Dr. Jacob Kollaparampil. He is accepted by Church Historians in India as one of the most reliable, and very well researched scholars. The preeminent Historian of Church History in India is Dr. Mathias Mundadan, and he quotes Fr. J. Kollaprampil often in his works.

The Papal Bull
by Pope St. Pius X instituting the
Vicariate Apostolic of Kottayam for the
Knanaya, Community.


The Papal Bull by St Pius X instituting the Vicariate Apostolic of Kottayam
for the Knanaya Community.

Pius PP. X

Ad futuram rei memoriam. In Universi Christiani gregis regendi munere Nobis divinitus commisso Nostrum praesertim esse ducimus eos Ecclesiis fines terminare qui cum praesidum optatis, tum fidelium bono apprime respondeant. Hac mente ad ducti quo gentis Syro-Malabaricae fidei ac pietati melius consultum sit novum Vicariatum Apostolicum in illorum regione constituere decrevimus. In hac enim natione rec. me. Leo PP. XIII Dec. Noster suis hisce similibus litteris die duodetricesimo Julii anno MDCCCXCVI datis, tres Apostolicos Vicariatus id est Trichurensem, Ernakulamensem et Changanachernsem condidit, eisque tres antistites ex ipso Syro-Malabarico populo delectos praeficiendos censuit et curavit. Nunc vero cum tres Vicarii Apostolici eorumdem, quos supra memoravimus, Vicariatuum, initis inter se consiliis per epistolam diei primi Martii huius vertentis anni a Nobis enixe petierint, ut ad spirituali illarum regionum commoditati satius prospiciendum et ad dissidentium animos consiliandos novus Apostolicus Vicariatus in urbe vulgo "Kottayam" nuncupata erigeretur. Nos ominibus rei momentis cum VV. FFr. NN. S.R.E. Cardinalibus S. Congregationis Christiano nomini propagando pro negotiis ritus orientalis mature ac sedulo perspectis, huiusmodi preces benigne excipere, atque illi preafatae nationi benevolentiae Nostrae pignus exhibere statuimus. Quare motu proprio, ex certa scientia ac de potestatis Nostrae plenitudine a duplici Vicariatu Apostolico Ernakulamensi et Changanacherensi omnes paroecias et Ecclesias- Suddisicas dismembramus easque in novum Vicariatum Apostolicum in urbe vulgo "Kottayam" pro gente Suddistica constituimus. Quis idcirco complectatur omnes Ecclesias et Sacella pertinentia ad Deccanatum Kottayamensem et Kaduthuruthensem in Vicariatu Apostolico Chenganacherensi una cum Ecclesiis Suddisticis Apostolici Vicariatus Ernakulamensis. Haec volumus ac precipimus, decermentes praesentes litteras firmas, validas, efficaces semper existere et fore suosque plenarios et integros effectus sortiri et obtinere, illisque ad quos spectat et in posterum spectabit in omnibus et per omnia plenissime suffragari, sicque in praemissis esse iudicandum, atque irritum esse et inane si secus super his a quoquam quavis auctoritate scienter vel ignoranter contigerit attentari. Non obstantibus Nostrae Cancellariae Apostolicae regula de iure quaesito non tolenda aliisque Constitutionibus Apostolicis in contrarium facientibus quibuscumque. Datum Rmae apud S. Petrum sub anulo Piscatoris die XXIX Augusti MCMXI Pontificatus Nostri Anno Nono.




Secretis Status



For the future record of the fact. In the office divinely entrusted to Us for governing the Universal Christian flock we consider it especially ours to determine for the churches such boundaries which correspond to the good of the faithul and to the desires of those who preside over them. For this reason in order to provide better for the faith and piety of the Syro-Malabar people we have decreed to constitute a new Apostolic Vicariate in their region.
For this people our predecessor of happy memory Pope Leo XIII by a letter similar to this dated July 28, 1896, established three Apostolic Vicariates, namely of Trichur, Ernakulam and Changanacherry and thought it fit to appoint over them three prelates selected from among them.
Now, however, since the three Vicars Apostolic of the same above mentioned Vicariates, after mutual consultation have insistently petitioned us by a letter, dated March 1 of this year, that a new Apostolic Vicariate may be erected in the town commonly called Kottayam in order to satisfactorily cater to the spiritual needs of those regions and to reconcile the minds of the dissidents, we having maturely and diligently considered all the important facts of the matter with our venerable brethren the Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church in the Sacred Congregation of propagating the Christian Name for the Affairs of the Oriental Rite, decided to kindly accept such request and show proof of our benevolence to the aforesaid nation.
Therefore, by motu proprio, with sure knowledge and fullness of our power we separate all the Southist parishes and churches from the two Apostolic Vicariates of Ernakulam and Changanacherry and constitute them into a new Apostolic Vicariate in the town commonly known as “Kottayam” for the Southist people. On that account it shall include all the churches and chapels pertaining to the Kottayarn and Kaduthuruthy foranes in the Apostolic Vicariate of Changanacherry and also the Southist churches of the Apostolic Vicariate of Ernakulam.
We want and command these things, decreeing that this letter shall always exist firm, valid and efficacious, and shall gain and obtain full and integral effect and shall most fully favour in all things and every way those whom it pertains and shall pertain in the future, and thus it must be judged invalid and void if it happens to be tampered with by any one of whatever authority knowingly or unknowingly.
Not withstanding our apostolic chancery’s rule of not removing the acquired right, and whatever other Apostolic constitutions to the contrary,
Given at Rome before St. Peter under the fisherman’s ring on the 29th day of August 1911, in thekninthhyearlofkouropontificate.





Secretary of State.

Decree of elevating the Eparchy of Kottayam to the Metropolitan See

Prot. No. 264 / 2005

Varkey Cardinal Vithayathil, Major Archbishop of the Syro-Malabar Church, sends his fraternal greetings to Mar Kuriakose Kunnacherry and Mar Mathew Moolakatt, brother bishops in the episcopate and to the people of God of the Eparchy of Kottayam.
The Eparchy of Kottayam, having been erected by H.H. Pope St.Pius X, of holy memory through the Papal Bull in Universi Christiani, on 29 August 1911, for the Knanaya community, has achieved commendable growth under the leadership of its Vicars Apostolic and Eparchial Bishops Mar Mathew Makil, Mar Alexander Choolaparambil, Mar Thomas Tharayil and the present Eparchial Bishop Mar Kuriakose Kunnacherry which was strengthened also by the appointment of an Auxiliary and later Co-adjutor Bishop Mar Mathew Moolakatt. The request for raising the See of Kottayam to the Metropolitan status was made by the present Eparchial Bishop of Kottayam to the Apostolic See through the erstwhile Syro-Malabar Bishop’s Conference and later through the Syro-Malabar Bishop’s Synod. After the Synod of Bishops of the Syro-Malabar Church was granted the exercise of all its faculties, the request was renewed and the Synod of Bishops of the Syro-Malabar Church in its session held from 1 to 13 November 2004 gave its consent and the Holy See gave its no-objection with the explicit understanding that the Metropolitan See of Kottayam is to remain without a suffragan eparchy.
Therefore, in virtue of CCEO c. 85 and by the authority vested in him as the Major Archbishop of the Syro-Malabar Major Archiepiscopal Church to provide the people of God entrusted to his care with pastors and efficient systems of governance, and guided by the consideration of the good of the faithful of the Eparchy of Kottayam and of the entire Syro-Malabar Church, the undersigned Varkey Cardinal Vithayathil, hereby elevates the Eparchy of Kottayam to the rank of a Metropolitan See without a suffragan eparchy. By a separate decree, Mar Kuriakose Kunnacherry, the present Eparchial Bishop of Kottayam has been appointed as the first Metropolitan of the newly erected Metropolitan See of Kottayam.
All contrary dispositions notwithstanding
Given at Kakkanad, from the Major Archiepiscopal Curia at Mount St. Thomas, on the 9th day of the month of May of the year 2005.


St. Thomas

Kinayi Thoma

Bishop Urha Mar Joseph

Spiritual Leader of Knanaya Migration and the head of Church in India in 345 A.D.

He appointed Fr. Mathew Makil as Vicar General for Knanaya Catholics before the establishment of Diocese exlusively for Knanaya Catholics

Charles Lavigne S.J., was born on 6.11.1840 at Sarlette in France. He was ordained for the titular see of Milevia and was appointed to the Apostolic Vicariate of Kottayam in 1887. He was transferred to the Diocese of Trincomalee in the year1896 and he died on July 11, 1913 inFrance.

Mar Mathew Makil(1851-1914)
Vicar Apostolate of Changanacherry and later the first Vicar Apostolate of Kottayam Vicariate for Knanaya Catholics. He laid foundation for the Eparchy of Kottayam.Mar Mathew Makil was born on 10.4.1851 at Manjoor in Kottayam District. He was appointed Vicar General for the Southists in the Vicariate of Kottayam in 1889. When the Vicariate Apostolic of Kottayam and Trichur were re-organized into Trichur, Ernakulam and Changanassery in 1896, he was nominated Titular Bishop of Trallus and appointed Vicar Apostolic of Changanassery. In 1911, a new Vicariate Apostolic of Kottayam was constituted exclusively for the Knanaya Catholics and Mar Mathew Makil was transferred to Kottayam as Vicar Apostolic. He died at Kottayam on 26-1-1914

Mar Alexander Chulaparambil(1877-1951)

Mar Alexander Chulaparambil was born on 14-10-1877 at Kumarakom in Kottayam District. He was ordained priest on December 22, 1906. He was nominated titular bishop of Bussaries and appointed Vicar Apostolic of Kottayam on the 16th of July, 1914 by His Holiness Pope St Pius X. When the Syro Malabar hierarchy was constituted on December 21, 1923 he became the Bishop of Kottayam. He died on January 8, 1951

Mar Thomas Tharayil(1899-1975)

Mar Thomas Tharayil was born on May 5, 1899 at Palathuruth in Kottayam District and was ordained priest on the 18th of December 1926. He was nominated Bishop of Azota and appointed Co-Adjutor Bishop of Kottayam on June 9, 1945 by His Holiness Pope Pius XII. At the demise of Mar Alexander Chulaparambil he became the Bishop of Kottayam on the 8th of January, 1951. He was an educationist. During his episcopacy two colleges - B.C.M. Kottayam, St. Stephens Uzhavoor - were established. He retired from the office on May 5, 1974 and died on July 26,19

Mar Kuriakose Kunnacherry

Mar Kuriakose Kunnacherry was born on the 11th of September,1928 at Kaduthuruthy in Kottayam District. He was ordained priest on the 21st of December,1955 in Rome. He received doctorate in Civil and Canon Laws from the University of Lateran in Rome and Master’s degree in Politics from USA. He was nominated bishop of Kepha and appointed Co-Adjutor Bishop of Kottayam on 9th December 1967. On February 24,1968 he received Episcopal Ordination at Sacred Heart Mount, Kottayam from His Eminence Cardinal Maximillian de Furstenberg, Prefect of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches. At the retirement of Mar Thomas Tharayil, he took charge of the Diocese of Kottayam on the 5th of May,1974. In addition to Malayalam and English he knows Italian, Latin, French, German and Syriac. He has served the regional, national and Universal Church in various capacities. He was a member of the Pontifical Commission for the Codification of the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches and a member of the Pontifical Council for Inter- religious Dialogue. He served as the Chairman of the Ecumenical and Inter-religious Dialogue Commission of the Catholic Bishops' Conference of India several times.
He was the Chairman of the St Joseph’s Pontifical Seminary, Alwaye and is now the Chairman of the St Thomas Apostolic Seminary, Vadavathoor and Vice Chancellor of the Paurastiya Vidya-pitham, Vadavathoor. He has held offices in the Kerala Catholic Bishops' Council and the Syro-Malabar Bishops' Conference. He was a member of permanent synod of the Syro-Malabar Archiepiscopal Church and member of commission for Ecumenism and particular law.
By the decree “God our loving father” dated May 9, 2005, the Major Archbishop Mar Varkey Cardinal Vithayathil appointed Mar Kuriakose Kunnacherry as the first metropolitan of the newly erected metropolitan see of Kottayam. On June 3, 2005 Mar Varkey Cardinal Vithayathil ordained and enthroned Mar Kuriakose Kunnacherry as the Metropolitan of Kottayam at a liturgical service in Christ the King Cathedral,Kottayam.

Mar MMathew Moolakkatt,O.S.B.

He was born on February 27,1953 at Uzhavoor in Kottayam District. He was ordained priest on the 27th December, 1978. He has B.Sc., B. Ed., M.A. in Sociology and doctorate in Canon Law. In 1994 he joined the Vallombrosan Benedictine Monastery and made the Final Profession on December 5, 1998. On December 28, 1998 he was nominated Bishop of Holler and appointed Auxiliary Bishop of Kottayam. He received the Episcopal Ordination on 6th January, 1999 from His Holiness Pope John Paul II. Later on August 15, 2003 H. H. Pope John Paul II appointed Mar Mathew Moolakatt as Co-adjutor Bishop of the Eparchy of Kottayam. He is now serving as the member of CBCI Commission for Justice Peace and Development. He is the member of the K.C.B.C Commission for Youth. Presently he is a member of permanent synod of the Syro-Malabar church and also a member of the liturgical commission. He is also a synodal commission member of St. Thomas Apostolic Seminary, Vadavathoor and Good Shephered Major Seminary, Kunnoth.

Auxiliary Bishop of Kottayam

MostRev.Dr.AbrahamViruthakulangaraArchbishop of Nagpur
Archbishop’s HouseMohan Nagar, Nagpur-440 001
Tel: 0712-2533239; 2560780 (P)Fax: 0712 - 2527906,

Mob. 09890154188

Born at Kallara on : 05-06-1943

Ordained Priest on : 28-10-1969

Consecrated as Bishop of Khandwa : 13-07-1977

Transferred as Archbishop of Nagpur : 19-02-1998
The Seventy-Two Privileges Given To Knananites By The King Cheraman Perumal

ARappura (Treasury)
Ambari(howdah on an elephant)
AnkaNam (courtyard)
Antholam (palanquin)
Ammoolam (a kink of tax)
Arp~ (cheers)
Alavattam (peocock feather fan)
Anasavari (elephant riding)
Uchipoovu (head turban)
Kacha (robes)
Kachappuram (overcoat)
Kankanam (bangles)
KalthaLa (anklets)
Kaalchilamp~ (anklets)
Kuravai (cheers)
Kuthira savaari (horse riding)
Kuzhal viLi (bugles)
Kodi (falg)
Kaikara (hand ornament)
KaithalLa (bangles)
Chelli (a kind of tax)
Chenkomb~ (another tax)
ChenDa (drum)
Thanberu (big drum)
ThazhakuDa (royal umbrella)
NervaaL (sword)
PaTTu chaTTa (silk coat)
PaTTurumal (silken tassal)
PaTTu munD~(silk dothi)
Pakal viLakk~ (day lamp)
PaDippura (out-house)
Pathakkam (necklace)
PanippuDava (embroidered robes)
Paravathani (carpet)
PavaDa (royal clothing)
Pallakk~ (palanquin)
Panchavadyam (orchestra)
Pandal vithanam (pandal decoration)
Pathinezhu parishamel kathruthwam (control over 17 lower casts)
MadhaLam (drum)
MaNarkolam (platform)
MuDi (crown)
MuDikeezhabharanam (head ornaments)
Mammolam (tax)
MethiyaDi (wooden chappels)
Rajavaadhyam (royal orchestra)
Rajasamaksham Irippu (sit before the King)
Rajabhogam (tax)
Veena (string instrument)
Thee veTTi (fire torch)
Thookumancham (swinging coat)
Thongal (decoration)
Thoranam (decoration)
TholvaLa (armpit bangle)
Theendalakattal (untouchability)
Nada viLi (cheers)
Nayattubhogam (privilage for hunting)
NeDiya KuDa (royal umbrella)
Nettur peTTi (cloth box)
NettikeTTu (turban)
Veeravadhyam (heroic bugles)
Veera srimkala (royal chain)
Viri pandal (honour to erect pandal)
Venchamaram (beautified deer-haired tassal)
Sankh~ (conch)
Edam piri sankh~(conch with left screw)
Valam piri sankh~(conch with right screw)
Bhoomi karamozhiv~ (land-tax evasion)
Nayatt~ (hunting)
Pala-marangaL (forest trees)